著作: [桑原 知巳]/細菌ゲノムシークエンス/[四国医学雑誌]
(英) Determination of whole DNA sequences of bacterial genomes
(日) Bacteria exhibit unique biological characteristics at species or strain levels, and it has becomepossible to understand their diversities by analyzing whole genome sequences. Almost 200bacterial genome sequences have so far been published, and determination of the completegenomes of nearly500bacteria is now in progress. Developments in sequencing technology andimprovements in automated sequencers have contributed to the rapid accumulation of genomesequence data.Comparative analysis of bacterial genomes has revealed that there are extensive diversities intheir structures such as linear chromosomes of Borrelia burgdorferi and two chromosomes of thegenus Vibrio. The diversities have been established by a combination of horizontal gene transfer,gene duplication, deletion, and/or genomic rearrangements during the process of adaptation over along period to each environment. These changes in bacterial genomes, especially in pathogenicbacteria, are related to the occurrence of novel types of infection or multi‐drug resistance. On theother hand, genomic analysis of a gut commensal, Bacteroides fragilis, has revealed that this speciesdynamically changes the genomic structure within a short period of time by multiple DNAinversions that create diverse surface antigenicities to evade the host immune system. Thus,whole genome sequencing provides important information on adaptation strategies of eachbacterium. However, in an environmental ecosystem such as soil, water, and human microflora, alarge number of bacteria interact with each other and comprise a functional unit. Communitygenomics, which targets all of the bacterial genome sequences included in a particularenvironmental ecosystem, is expected to provide novel insights into microbe‐microbe and hostmicrobeinteractions.
|年月日||必須||2004年 12月 20日|